myanmar civil war explained

Undaunted: My Struggle for Freedom and Survival in Burma. In reality, the Rohingya conflict is part of a Civil War which began in 1948 as a legacy of the colonial map of what was then called Burma. ", "Myanmar troops open fire on civilians fleeing attacks", "Erasing the Rohingya: Myanmar's moves could mean refugees never return", "Arakan Army clashes with government forces in Rakhine state", "13 policemen die in Rakhine rebel attacks", "Rakhine Insurgents Kill 13 Policemen, Injure Nine Others in Myanmar Outpost Attacks", "Rakhine Buddhist rebels kill 13 in Independence Day attack on...", "Buddhist Violence Portends New Threat to Myanmar", "AA Frees 14 Police, 4 Women Captured in Attack on Border Posts", "President Convenes Top-Level Security Meeting in Wake of AA Attacks", "UN Calls for 'Rapid and Unimpeded' Aid Access to Myanmar's Rakhine", "Myanmar villagers flee to Bangladesh amid Rakhine violence", "203 Buddhists from Rakhine entered Bangladesh in last 5 days", "Three Villagers Shot Dead in Fighting Between Gov't, AA Troops in Rakhine", "ေမာင္ေတာ ရန္ေအာင္ျမင္ရြာထဲကို လက္နက္ႀကီးက်လို႔ လူ၂ ဦး ဒဏ္ရာရ", "သမီးလွရြာခံ ၃ဦး ရိုက္ႏွက္ခံရတယ္လို႔ ေျပာ", "သရက္ျပင္ေက်းရြာအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးမွဴးအပါအ၀င္ ၁၅ ဦးကို တပ္မေတာ္ ဖမ္းဆီး", "လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးခ်ဳိးေဖာက္တာေတြ ရိွတယ္ဆုိတဲ့ စြပ္စဲြခ်က္ကို တပ္မေတာ္ျငင္းဆုိ", "Concern Mounts for IDPs in Northern Rakhine as Army Blocks Aid Shipments", "Restoration Council of Shan State (RCSS/SSA-S)", "China Urges Burma to Bridle Ethnic Militia Uprising at Border", "Deadly clashes hit Kokang in Myanmar's Shan state", "Myanmar rebel clashes in Kokang leave 30 dead", "8 killed as ethnic rebels hit Muse- DVB Multimedia Group", "Ethnic armed groups launch attack near Muse", "Ethnic Armed Groups Claim Control of Border Town", "Air strikes reported as Shan State conflict spreads", "Burmese army recaptures Mongko- DVB Multimedia Group", "Myanmar insurgents attack elite military college, other targets; 15...", "Myanmar rebels kill over a dozen in attack in Shan state", "More than a Dozen People Killed in Myanmar Rebel Attacks", "Myanmar ethnic rebel alliance makes coordinated attacks", "Ambulance driver killed in Myanmar as army battles rebels", "Armed attacks escalate in Myanmar northern Shan state", "Rebel Fighters Attack 2 Towns in Myanmar's Shan State", "Foreigners, Migrant Workers Evacuated From Conflict Zone in Myanmar's Shan State", "Myanmar army warns of full-scale war in Shan State", https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/15/world/asia/obama-aung-san-suu-kyi-myanmar.html?_r=0, "Myanmar's Upcoming 4th Union Peace Conference: Time for a Rethink", "Peace process convention — 21st Century Panglong (Fourth Meeting), to move forward", "Myanmar's army blocks constitutional reforms", "Myanmar's military: The power Aung San Suu Kyi can't control", "In a Muslim lawyer's murder, Myanmar's shattered dream", "The Landmine Victims of Myanmar's Civil War", "Burmese army releases 91 child soldiers: UNICEF", "Armed ethnic groups press-gang villagers", "Bizarre 'God's Army' Led By Young Boys Surrenders", "2013 UNHCR country operations profile – Thailand", "Fort Wayne refugees from Myanmar worried about policy changes", "Governance in refugee camps on the Thai/Burma border", http://www.oxfordburmaalliance.org/ethnic-groups.html, "Is refugee crisis 'textbook ethnic cleansing'? In November 2014, the NLD attempted to make amendments to the constitution, in response to a clause that made Aung San Suu Kyi ineligible to become President of Myanmar if her party won an election. "[178], The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre reports a total of 401,000 people internally displaced in Myanmar as of 2018, owing both to man-made and natural disasters as well as conflict and violence. [199] The two countries' armies have conducted joint operations against insurgents at their border since the 1990s. According to this narrative, numerous acts of injustice against Muslims, often at the hands of the same actors, have led to an aggregate reality in which Muslims are brutally victimized throughout the world. The Karenni Army is currently led by General Bee Htoo,[102] and consists of roughly between 500[38] and 1,500 soldiers. (18 June 2014). They have experienced persistent, institutionalized discrimination for years. Retrieved 23 November 2014, from. The internal conflict in Myanmar is a series of insurgencies in Myanmar that began shortly after the country, then known as Burma, gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1948. Over the next five years, investments poured in. [155] The protest originally began in response to the government's removal of price subsidies for compressed natural gas. [200] Myanmar has also taken an active role in finding and arresting insurgents that fled from northeast India; in May 2020 Myanmar handed over 22 insurgents, included several top commanders, to Indian authorities. CMEC largely remains an idea on the drawing board rather than a reality, ... After the Chinese Civil War, thousands of Nationalist Chinese troops fled across this frontier to wage a cross-border guerilla struggle from bases in Myanmar’s loosely-controlled jungle regions before establishing a narcotics empire in the “Golden Triangle” border regions. NLD’s participation in the 2012 by-elections gave legitimacy to the junta’s reforms. Vojni leksikon [Military Lexicon] (Beograd: Vojnoizdavacki zavod, 1981), p. 71. Similarly, Karen insurgent groups began to fight for independence. [54] This was, however, not honoured by the post-independence government following Aung San's assassination. By the early 1980s, politically motivated armed insurgencies had largely disappeared, while ethnic-based insurgencies continued. The similarities are vast between the Kurdish issue in the Middle East and the Rohingya conflict in Myanmar are vast and telling, in terms of attempting to foresee a possible outcome. [179] Of these total displacements, IDMC estimates that approximately 42,000 people were newly displaced in 2018 by conflict and violence. [182] All of the 14 signatories wanted negotiations in accordance with the Panglong Agreement of 1947, which granted self-determination, a federal system of government (meaning regional autonomy), religious freedom and ethnic minority rights. Support to the Kuomintang and the Wa National Army only. The confusion stems not only from the complexities of Myanmar’s internal situation but from something much simpler. The communists and ethnic minorities in the country were dissatisfied with the newly formed government, believing that they were being unfairly excluded from governing the country. [39], The Karen people of Kayin State (formerly Karen State) in eastern Myanmar are the third largest ethnic group in Myanmar, consisting of roughly 7% of the country's total population. [166], One of the most notable cases in which child soldiers were used in Myanmar was that of twins Johnny and Luther Htoo, the leaders of God's Army, a former rebel faction. In both cases, a semi-stateless group that has historic connections to the region are engaged in a conflict with the government as well as local non-Muslims. [45] During the Tatmadaw's heavy militarisation of the state in the late 1940s and early 1950s, locals accused them of mistreating, torturing, robbing, raping, unlawfully arresting and massacring villagers. [160][161] A number of politicians and activists have been killed for voicing their opposition to the military's role in the government, such as constitutional lawyer Ko Ni, who was assassinated after he called for political reforms to reduce the military's influence. The US has a history of backing objectively tyrannical leaders from Pinochet in 1973 to the present regimes in Saudi Arabia and Ukraine (post-2014 coup). A total of 71 people were reportedly killed in the armed clashes. [181] The report also highlighted the conviction of Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo, two Reuters reporters who had exposed the military's extrajudicial killing of ten Rohingya men and were subsequently imprisoned; the journalists have since been released and awarded a 2019 Pulitzer Prize for their reporting. The KNU claims that its use of landmines is vital for repelling government forces, because it "discourages them from attacking civilians". This narrative is not only simplistic but is related to the view which is alternatively ‘alt-right’ or ‘Zionist’ which seeks to claim that in any conflict, Muslims, no matter who they are, are to blame. In order to fund his time with the KNLA, Everett perpetrated several robberies in Australia with the help of accomplices and took piloting lessons so he could smuggle weapons into Myanmar. The American Political Science Review, 89(3), 681. [203][204] In September 2017, Bangladeshi sources stated that the possibility of cooperation between Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and ARSA was "extremely high". [113], During the early hours of 25 August 2017, ARSA insurgents launched coordinated attacks on 24 police posts and the 552nd Light Infantry Battalion army base, killing a dozen people. In response, Burmese Prime Minister U Nu immediately sent a Muslim diplomat, Pe Khin, to negotiate a memorandum of understanding. Retrieved 24 November 2014, from, Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Burma, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, 12 February 2007, Ethnic Nationalities of Burma. Arming Nonalignment: Yugoslavia's Relations with Burma and the Cold War in Asia (1950–1955). The Consequences of Negotiated Settlements in Civil Wars, 1945–1993. [181] Hundreds and perhaps thousands of Rohingya women and girls were reported to have been raped, including in mass gang rapes, and at least 392 Rohingya villages were burned to the ground. A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in South East Asia, editor=Tan, Andrew T. H., chapter=Chapter 16, State Terrorism in Arakan, author=Islam, Syed Serajul Islam. The former had fought the British colonial government prior to independence; however, during the final days of the Japanese occupation of Burma in World War II, both groups helped the British against the Imperial Japanese Army. Alleged support to the Northern Alliance from 1989 onwards. [188] In 2009 they urged the then ruling junta to take urgent measures to end violations of international human rights and humanitarian laws in the country. Here, both the USSR and the USA told the invaders to withdraw as both were eager to compete for influence in Egypt. Many people in the west have inversely come to resent Israel for its callous exploitation of events, even while remaining unmoved by the Palestinian cause. The group signed a ceasefire agreement with the government in 1989, the same year it was founded, which lasted for two decades until 2009, when violence erupted between the group and government forces. When Indonesia joined, it was ruled by the staunchly anti-imperialist President Suharto. Myanmar is the world’s second-largest opium poppy grower, with Shan state at the heart of opium activities that drive the overwhelming majority of the cultivation. Related | Could Sanctions Stop Myanmar’s Ethnic Cleansing Of The Rohingya? The Kachin National Consultative Assembly (KNCA) called for an end to 70-years of civil war in Burma during the International Day of Peace on Monday (September 21). [123][124], Following the attacks, the Office of the President of Myanmar held a high-level meeting on national security in the capital Naypyidaw on 7 January 2019, and instructed the Defense Ministry to increase troop deployments in the areas that were attacked and to use aircraft if necessary. [136] Violence again erupted between the MNDAA and government forces in 2015[137] and 2017. The National League for Democracy’s decisive victory in Myanmar’s 2015 elections inspired hopes of a full transition from military rule and an opening of civil space. The fog of war is such that civilians are obviously getting killed as a result, but it’s unclear whether this constitutes genocide, or who’s actually behind it all”. In the 1960s and 1970s for example, Egypt was generally closer to the USSR while in the 1980s and 1990s, Egypt was closer to the US. Most stem from a misunderstanding not only of Myanmar’s internal situation but from a misunderstanding of the country’s position as a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. Non-aligned states can quickly turn from heroes to villains in the eyes of an agenda driven press (both mainstream and alternative) depending on who such states are leaning towards at any given moment. Humanitarian organisations such as Doctors Without Borders have since sent workers and medical support to the refugees. [45], Whilst some groups continue to fight for full independence and for the right for self-determination of their people, groups such as the Chin National Front (CNF) and the Karen National Union (KNU) have since fought instead for regional autonomy and a federal system of government in Myanmar.[154]. About. In response, the more impoverished Rohingya, who don’t have citizenship rights because most of them don’t qualify for such under the country’s pertinent laws, had little to leave behind in Rakhine State and would flee en mass to Bangladesh for safety. This deeply flawed map was drawn by the British imperialists. [170][173][174], In Rakhine State, there were around 75,000 internally displaced Rohingyas in 2012, according to Refugee International. However, these efforts have been criticised for not addressing the main proposals made by ceasefire groups, and for failing to reduce tensions between the government and the country's largest insurgent groups. In many ways, however, Yugoslavia is an exception that has proved the rule, both in terms of factual realities and in terms of perception. [145][146][147][148] Further clashes occurred in the following days,[149][150][151][152] with Myanmar's military warning there could be a full-scale war if the Northern Alliance did not halt their attacks. p = /^http:/.test( d.location ) ? However, since 1976 they have instead called for a federal union with fair Karen representation and the self-determination of the Karen people. The Rohingya seek autonomy and in some cases a form of separatism, something that the central government finds unacceptable as is generally the case with most governments. [104] According to a report by legal firm DLA Piper, whose report was presented to the United Nations Security Council, these tactics against the Karen have been identified as ethnic cleansing. [44], On 8 August 1988, students began demonstrating in Rangoon (Yangon) against General Ne Win's rule and the disastrous Burmese Way to Socialism system. In 1967, following China's initiation of the Cultural Revolution, violence broke out between local Bamars and overseas Chinese in Myanmar, leading to anti-Chinese riots in Rangoon (present-day Yangon) and other cities. Instead of big leaps, however, only small steps are to be expected, and on top of that, there is always the threat of reversal and wrong turns. [170][171] In August 2007, approximately 160,000 refugees fled to nine refugee camps along the Myanmar–Thailand border and the Thai border provinces of Chiang Mai and Ratchaburi. Despite numerous ceasefires and the creation of autonomous self-administered zones in 2008, many groups continue to call for independence, increased autonomy, or the federalisation of the country. Everett fought alongside the KNLA under the alias "Steve" and trained insurgents, helping them improve their marksmanship and teaching them how to use claymore anti-personnel mines. Retrieved 4 January 2010. [197], In 2016, China pledged to support Myanmar's peace process by encouraging China-friendly insurgent groups to attend peace talks with the Burmese government and by sending more soldiers to secure its border with Myanmar. Right now, Myanmar is caught in a web which sees China and Russia on one side who offer economic opportunity and neutral but non-antagonistic political guidance, India which seeks to exploit a pro-government agenda/narrative in order to attain economic advantage over China and to a lesser degree Russia and finally there is the west, observing the entire thing while waiting to see whether it is in the West’s interest to describe the Rohingya crisis as an ethnic cleansing, a Muslim insurgency or what former UK Prime Minister Harold MacMillan may well have called “a little local difficulty”. [16], The KNU signed the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) with the government of Myanmar on 15 October 2015, along with seven other insurgent groups. This is a sentiment which for totally different reasons has been exploited both by those whose sympathies lie with Muslims and those whose sympathies lie with anyone but Muslims. js.id = id; The protests spread across the country,[66] The uprising ended on 18 September 1988, after a military coup was enacted by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) and the BSPP government was overthrown. This is due to the fact that as old blocs and empires collapse, many nations find themselves in a de-facto non-aligned position. Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia.In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely, Mranma Prañ) since the 13th century. [citation needed], One the largest Shan insurgent groups in Myanmar is the Shan State Army - South (SSA-S), which has around 6,000 to 8,000 soldiers, and was led by Yawd Serk until his resignation on 2 February 2014. ], India and Myanmar share a strategic military relationship due to the overlapping insurgency in northeast India. Over the last four decades and since 9/11 in particular, many observers (irrespective of their faith or background) have come to feel that Muslims are being aggressively targeted the world over. Today, the US has expressed a desire to delay a Kurdish independence referendum in northern Iraq because of US vested interests in post-2003 Iraq. It also gave the Chin, Kachin and Shan people the option to separate from Myanmar after a decade if their states' leaders were unhappy with the central government. The KNU has since shifted their focus from full independence to regional autonomy, under a federal system with fair Karen representation in the government.[63]. [186] The name of the conference was a reference to the original Panglong Conference held during British rule in 1947, which was negotiated between Aung San and ethnic leaders. Today, Egypt while maintaining good ties with both Moscow and Washington, appears to be slowly pivoting closer to Russia. This theory, when applied to the world as a whole, is often true, although there are exceptions as there would be to any overly broad theory. This is just an obvious reality of the pragmatic and realistic approach of Russian diplomacy and the non-ideological nature of Chinese commercial and geostrategic interests. The Arakan Army later stated that it had captured nine BGP personnel and five civilians, and that three of its fighters were also killed in the attacks. Neither has materialized, and the groups working to advance social, political, and economic change in Myanmar continue to face significant challenges. Bangladesh, one of the world’s poorest countries, was already sheltering some 100,000 Rohingya refugees before another 123,000 flooded in after Aug. 25, according to the U.N. refugee agency’s latest estimate on Tuesday. Marcos, for all his faults, was as skilled at manipulating the US as the US was at manipulating him. js.src = p + '://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js'; [89] On 11 October 2016, four Tatmadaw soldiers were killed on the third day of fighting. [86], Between February and May 2015, government forces launched a series of military operations in Kokang, in northern Shan State,[87] after the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA) attempted to retake territory it had lost in 2009. In his expert analysis, Andrew Korybro warns that Aung San Suu Kyi, the State Councillor of Myanmar, might become a “South East Asian Saddam”. Adam Garrie Despite making up a majority of the population in the three northern townships of Rakhine State,[111] Rohingyas are often targets of religiously motivated attacks. For similar reasons, the US also looks with intrigue towards Kurdish separatists in Iran. 1". The basics. Ethnic political parties have promised to restore peace in Burma if they win a collective majority in the upcoming 2020 general election. Because the government does not recognise the Rohingya people as an official ethnic group in Myanmar, Rohingyas cannot apply for citizenship and few laws exist to protect their rights. [70][71][72] According to The Economist, over 3,000 people were killed in the public uprising. [101] This figure includes IDPs across the country, with 131,000 in Rakhine State, 97,000 in Kachin State, 50,000 in Kayin State, 40,000 in Tanintharyi Region, 27,000 in Karenni State, 22,000 in Bago Region, 18,000 in Mon State, 15,000 in Shan State and 1,300 in Chin State. 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