summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations

CHAPTER 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation. The calculation process requires an extensive dialogue with federal and state health agencies, state legislatures, state governors, and the U.S. Congress. You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. The federal government’s role in supporting immunization activities within each state should strike a balance between helping the states achieve important national objectives and sustaining incentives for states to use their own funds to meet the needs of their residents. The federal government currently spends more than $650 million annually on vaccine purchases, predominantly for childhood vaccines.3 The states estimate that they will collectively spend an additional $109 million for vaccine purchases in 2000. Section 317 grants to the states for infrastructure were highly unstable during the 1990s (see Figures 1–2 and 1–3 in Chapter 1). According to 1997 NHIS data, elderly blacks had the lowest likelihood of receiving either influenza (45 percent) or pneumococcal (22 percent) immunizations. Question 4: How should federal grant funds be distributed among the states? They might invest their own funds to provide higher fees for Medicaid and SCHIP health services and rely more heavily on these programs to cover immunizations. A state match requirement should be introduced so that federal and state agencies share the total. CHAPTER I ...Chapter 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This work aimed to analyze the effectiveness of the Retention Policy to selected second year students of University of the East-Manila taking up Bachelor of Science in Accountancy for the school year 2011-2012. The states collectively spend about twice the amount provided in federal Section 317 grants to support immunization infrastructure ($231 million in state-level budgets compared with $123 million in federal assistance grants in FY 2000), but state budgets are highly variable. Based on an examination of total state expenditure histories, the committee estimates that the states require a total of about $500 million in annual infrastructure funds to sustain a national immunization system that can achieve current national health goals; respond to future developments in the areas of vaccine science, information technology, and health care delivery systems; improve the sensitivity of surveillance measures so they can identify important gaps in immunization coverage levels; and extend immunization programs to the adult population. must provide tallies of doses administered for larger numbers of vaccines and providers, as well as estimates of VFC participants served in increasingly diverse health settings. One’s summary and conclusions should lead logically to one’s recommendations. Two types of competition were reflected by the research results. What was the extent of overall spending by all sources for immunizations in the United States during the 1990s? Determining the level of need within each state requires attention to several basic components, such as the following: the size of the general population (adult, adolescent, and child). It is conceivable that a match requirement might prompt individual states to add their own resources or in-kind contributions to their immunization programs, or to seek such resources from outside government, since health officers will need to demonstrate a base level of grantee contribution to qualify for federal grants. Therefore, the committee recommends that CDC be required to notify Congress each year of the estimated cost impact of new vaccines that have been added to the immunization schedule so that these figures can be considered in reviewing the vaccine purchase and infrastructure budgets for the Section 317 program. Third, the state match requirement does not necessarily require new sources of funds, since many states already contribute to the support of immunization efforts. Summary of Findings CDC grants were commonly allocated in a piecemeal way, including multiple grants within a budget cycle and the distribution of funds late in the fiscal year. Only 4 states have direct state funding for a substantial portion (i.e., more than 40 percent) of their immunization program infrastructure (Freed et al., 1999). A process of prioritization is essential to narrowing down findings, and once this is done, recommendations should be developed that align with the most important findings. Many states carried forward significant amounts of federal funds from one budget cycle to the next. For example, a recent CDC study of 12 states2 indicated that the proportion of total state vaccine purchases allocated to VFC ranged from 42 percent (Washington) to 87 percent (California) (CDC, 1998d). The start of normal... ...Chapter V FY 2000) is sufficient to meet state requests for child vaccines within the immunization schedule recommended by ACIP as of January 2000.6 But additions to the ACIP schedule will expand the burden of preventive health care costs to state and federal health agencies as well as private health plans. summarise the key findings, outcomes or information in your report; acknowledge limitations and make recommendations for future work (where applicable) highlight the significance or usefulness of your work. The use of consistent immunization measures within the public and private sectors offers a valuable opportunity to conduct research on the factors that can contribute to disparities in coverage rates within different types of health plans. In response to the budget cuts, most states reduced the scale of effort of their activities, commonly reducing outreach, education efforts, and service-delivery arrangements with outside contractors. Immunization Finance Policies and Practices, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Calling the Shots: Immunization Finance Policies and Practices, Change and Complexity in the National Immunization System, Building, Monitoring, and Sustaining Immunization Capacity, Summary Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations, Appendix A: Public Health Services Act, Section 317, Appendix E: Overview of Case Studies and Site Visits, Appendix F: Annual Section 317 Awards to States, Appendix G: State Immunization Requirements for School Children, Appendix H: Committee and Staff Biographies. In 1997, 67 percent and 44 percent, respectively, of noninstitutionalized elderly with diabetes received influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Relevant studies may be available in other fields (such as education) that offer insights and experience. SOURCE: Information provided by CDC. Although states should have flexibility in designing finance and service systems to meet their immunization needs, tracking systems should be developed that allow the states to report and compare both the scale of. Ten states fund immunization program staff, while a handful of others have small amounts of general funding. Respondent 1 and Respondent 2 are the main beneficiaries of the study, were considered in the evaluation of the software product. Introduction Infrastructure Grants. In addition, despite the implementation of VFC throughout the United States, some states, particularly those with universal purchase programs, continue to allocate sizeable amounts of their own funds for vaccine purchase. The national immunization system is weakening, and we should not have to wait for. The committee believes the states bear responsibility for sharing the infrastructure costs of the national immunization system. Moreover, recommendations were base from the findings and conclusion of the study. Objectives of the Study Estimates of state capacity are commonly used when determining cost-sharing formulas in other federally funded, state-administered health programs, including Medicaid, MCH grants (Title V), and SCHIP. – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 594c1f-NGJlZ Figure5 Log-In Forms Almost half of the states (21) provide no direct state funding for immunization program infrastructure. Other states, such as Alabama, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, rely primarily on federal funds for vaccine purchase. The state role is to ensure that appropriate systems are in place for detecting and responding to changes in immunization coverage levels and disparities in access to immunization resources. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The summary is a brief restatement of the main findings presented under each factor. For example, all health plans (public and private) that offer primary care benefits for children and adults should bear the. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Other sources of revenue within the states, such as funds available from some private-sector plans for provider reminder-recall systems, local governmental support for registry projects, and vaccine industry support for professional education, are more limited, and no national data exist that can be used to measure such investments over time. Several states provide in-kind technical support for registry development (Freed et al., 1999). As shown by the low coverage rates and low levels of funding, adult immunization is not a priority in the United States. Pneumococcal immunization levels for the elderly are significantly lower than influenza immunization levels, even though Medicare covers the cost of this vaccine and its administration (Janes et al., 1999). Following the 1989–1991 measles outbreak, CDC launched a national initiative designed to strengthen state immunization programs and provide resources for a broad array of direct services, outreach, and expanded access programs. 3. Group findings and recommendations PUBLIC Scope of the Working Group analysis This report is a short summary of the first cycle of work conducted by Customer Engagement Working Group members. Direct support means the states allocate their own revenues for the direct support of vaccine purchase or immunization infrastructure programs. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The researcher used the following phase namely: ________, ________, ________, _________, ____________. These and other surveillance efforts should be supported by the national immunization partnership as a national health priority, with appropriate recognition of the issues of privacy and confidentiality. Coverage rates for the noninstitutionalized elderly were higher than those for the high-risk population aged 18–64 in every subgroup. Many states already have procedures for approval of match contributions, and they are accustomed to including a match in Title V and other public health grant proposals. When the business is established I can implement small surveys to my customers to provide feedback about my business (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). States in which 20 percent of the population is without insurance, for example, require greater investments in safety net support than those that have less than 10 percent uninsured. A second capacity measure that is directly relevant to immunization is more difficult to determine. Recommendation 5: CDC should initiate a dialogue with federal and state health agencies, state legislatures, state governors, and the U.S. Congress immediately so that legislative and budgetary reforms can be proposed promptly when Section 317 is up for reauthorization in FY 2002. CHAPTER I: Project and Its Background Some examples are online or telephone interviews (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). The conclusions were based on the purpose, research questions and results of the study. For persons aged 65–74, percentages ranged from 30.1 percent (New Jersey) to 56.9 percent (Arizona), with a median of 42.6 percent. Differences in coverage levels among races were not as great in the high-risk population aged 18–64 as in the population over age 65. CDC has recognized the importance of immunization performance over the past decade (with congressional guidance) by allocating a portion of the Section 317 grant awards to incentive awards based on improvements in immunization rates. In addition, the committee recommends that CDC develop a coordinated and comprehensive immunization effort for adults to encourage greater participation by the private and public health care sectors in achieving national goals. Uncertainties about the extent to which VFC eligibility should be expanded to the entire SCHIP population have prompted requests for guidance from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) (Richardson, 1999; Richardson and Orenstein, 1999), as well as legislation introduced in the Congress in September 1999 (U.S. House of Representatives, 1999a; U.S. Senate, 1999). The administrative separation of state Medicaid offices and public health agencies. Minority stress has been linked to psychological distress among gay men and lesbians and may contribute to elevated rates of distress frequently observed among LGBTQ youth. Conduct population wide surveillance of immunization coverage levels, including the identification of significant disparities, gaps, and vaccine safety concerns. (Supported by Findings 4–2 and 4–14 in Chapter 4 and Findings 5–12 and 5–16 in Chapter 5.). Several states have expressed concern that they do not have the workforce capacity to investigate disease outbreaks, work with providers, or continue registry development. 68 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations This chapter presents the summary or the research workundertaken, the conclusions drawn and the recommendations … The conclusions given were drawn from the outcomes of the research and observations on the TITLE of respondents 1 and respondents 2. The federal government was and remains the primary source of assistance for both vaccine purchases and immunization programs. Some limitations have been identified. The size of within-state disparities is a second important measure of performance that can demonstrate how well or how poorly the state health system is doing in providing access to immunization services among hard-to-reach populations. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. The history of the Section 317 program demonstrates that the program is fundamentally designed so the federal government can share with the states the costs of enhancing access to immunizations for vulnerable and medically underserved populations, especially children, the elderly, and those who reside in areas of concentrated disadvantage. CHAPTER IV: Photographic Documentation The vaccine is recommended for all infants up to age 2 and all high-risk children up to age 5 (CDC, 2000d). From 1995 to 1997, 48 states showed improvement in influenza vaccination rates for the elderly. DEDICATION It can serve as a check on the … The federal budget figure is derived from three calculations: (1) annual state expenditure levels during the mid-1990s, (2) the level of spending necessary to provide additional resources to states with high levels of need without reducing current award levels for each state (known as a “hold harmless” provision), and (3) additional infrastructure requirements associated with adjusting to anticipated changes and increased complexity in the immunization schedule. Their case management and record maintenance costs are greater than comparable costs for individuals who remain with the same health care provider or the same practice over a period of years, especially those who remain within one health plan during the important immunization period of the early childhood years. As a result, Medicaid providers (which were bound by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] recommendations) were obligated to provide these vaccines, and states sought to make them available in public health clinics through their Section 317 purchases when they experienced delays in obtaining vaccines from the VFC program. Figure6 Main Menu Chapter 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION 1. Both federal and state vaccine purchase budgets will require annual adjustments as vaccine costs change or new vaccines or age groups are added to the adult immunization schedule. Immunization coverage measures are important for identifying both community health needs and performance outcomes for selected service interventions. Similarly, the proportion of vaccine purchases allocated to Section 317 ranged from 5 percent (Florida) to 48 percent (Utah). The proposed federal government share (a total of $200 million per year, representing a $74 million annual increase over current budgets) should be administered by CDC through the Section 317 state grants program. From our primary survey we have found out that the business community is quite aware of Radisson Blu hotel. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. The formula should reflect a base level as well as factors related to each state’s need, capacity, and performance. The pneumococcal vaccine (estimated to cost $232 for a four-dose series) will add an extraordinary incremental cost to state vaccine budgets, for which resources were not allocated in either the FY 2000 or FY 2001 federal Section 317 budget (Stolberg, 2000). Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. Recommendation Cariño, Joy Valerie CHAPTER II: Review on Related Literature A set of proxy measures focused on need, capacity, and performance should be developed that can be monitored over time. While total federal immunization budgets grew significantly with the creation of VFC, federal support for immunization programs within the states decreased during the past 5 years. CHAPTER V: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation Recommendation 6: Federal and state agencies should develop a set of consistent and comparable immunization measures for use in monitoring the status of children and adults enrolled in private and public health plans. Indirect support means the states rely on other approaches to support immunization efforts. Summary Also, to know their opinions and reactions about the issue. "Institute of Medicine. | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Formula factors that might be built into the allocation of Section 317 grants might include, for example, the distribution of the state’s population above and below the federal poverty level, the percentage of uninsured families, the size of the child and adolescent Medicaid populations, and the size of the high-risk adult population within the state. As with the monitoring of adult coverage levels, existing immunization finance programs tend to neglect the population aged 18–64. A comprehensive and coordinated adult immunization program needs to be initiated within each state, with leadership at the national, state, and local levels, to encourage the participation of private and public health care providers in offering immunizations to adults under the guidelines established in the ACIP schedule. Some state legislatures meet biennially, causing delays in accommodating additional unanticipated federal grants. Another reason is that it is perceived not as a value for money. Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations In the recommendations at the end of this chapter, the committee proposes a specific financing level for purchasing vaccines as part of an adult immunization program. Similarly, it is wasteful to improve outreach and parental education programs in communities where most parents already believe in the importance of vaccines, but mistakenly believe that their children are already up to date in their immunization status. Our primary as well as secondary research shows that there are complaints regarding the variety in the buffet especially the starters when compared to its competitors. DCTHILLSFARM’s business just got approved and it needs a system for it to start. Whatever the source, states need to be able to predict the size of their immunization budgets on a multiyear basis, rely on steady sources of income to support both vaccine purchase and infrastructure efforts, and assess the performance of those efforts according to a consistent set of measures. Increased funding and coordinated programs can begin to move adult immunization beyond its current marginal status. This role can be fulfilled in one of two ways: by purchasing additional vaccines (the committee suggests an increase of $11 million) or by requiring all private insurers within the state (including Employee Retirement Income Security Act [ERISA]-preempted health plans) to provide all ACIP-recommended vaccines to their members in accordance with state immunization standards. The federal government should be the senior finance partner for the national immunization system because of the central importance of vaccines in contributing to the nation’s health, and because disease outbreaks in one region can threaten the health of another without respect for political borders. (Supported by Finding 3–6 in Chapter 3; Finding 4–11 in Chapter 4; and Findings 5–1 through 5–9, 5–12, 5–16, 5–18, and 5–19 in Chapter 5.). There is various ways to conduct surveys examples online or emails. Finally, state agencies are also responsible for ensuring that the public and private health care sectors work collaboratively within their jurisdiction so that public resources are used efficiently. (DOC) Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... ... dsdsds Then the researchers identified the respondents who are students from the 7th grade up to 4th year students in Sorsogon National High School. mentation and create an administrative burden for CDC staff and state officials. The main difference was that there were a valet parking with 2 car parks for location A and an onsite parking for location B. Greater oversight of the immunization budgets of public health agencies will reveal the extent to which such budgets support safety net services to meet residual needs, as well as critical surveillance and assessment functions that benefit the general population. The mean coverage level of states in 1997, 65.5 percent, was almost double the 1989 coverage level of 33 percent (CDC, 1998d). Team Reflection Week 3 State grantees will need to document their contributions to immunization infrastructure on an annual basis. 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